بهترین دکتر چشک پزشک در یزد

Eye

    In healthy eyes, the light passes through the clear lenses to reach the retina. A cataract is a clouding of the eye’s lens that effects on the vision. Cataracts usually develop slowly and leads to disturb the everyday activities such as studying and driving etc. at the last levels. It is regarded as the most common cause of vision loss and an inevitable result of ageing process. So, the adults mostly suffer from it. Cataracts can involve one or both eyes and cannot spread from one eye to the other.

Cataracts Types

    There are three types of cataracts that the patients experience it, including:
    Nuclear Cataract: It is regarded as one of the most common types of cataracts and the direct result of ageing that occurs in the central part of the lens, known as the nucleus.
    Cortical Cataract: It effects on the edges of the lens, called cortex, and starts with white, wedge-like opacities.
    Sub-capsular Cataract: A sub-capsular cataract or posterior sub-capsular cataract happens at the back of the lens. It develops faster than other types. Patients suffer from diabetes or those taking steroid medications in high doses are at risk of developing a sub-capsular cataract.

Cataracts Causes

    There are various reasons that cause cataracts. Ageing is considered the most common one for cataract. The structure of lens contains water and protein. The protein makes the lens clear and the light pass through. As the age grows, some of the protein may gather together and cover a small area of the lens that causes a blurred vision. The area will get larger over the time.
    Also, the congenital cataract is another. It refers to the infants were born with cataracts due to the genetic issues or the mother’s disease such as rubella during pregnancy. If cataracts do not effect on the center of the lens, the treatment may not be needed. Otherwise, it is necessary to be treated by an ophthalmologist.
    Moreover, the other effective factors make cataracts, including:

    • Family history
    • long use of corticosteroid medications as well as Statin medicines
    • The previous eye injury or eye surgery
    • Smoking and excessive alcohol consumption
    • Radiation from sunlight and other sources
    • Obesity
    • Diabetes

Cataract Symptoms

    The cloudy or blurry vision especially during reading, driving and the other activities is considered the first symptom of cataract. The most common ones are:

    • Fading of colors
    • Seeing halos around lights
    • More difficulties with vision at night
    • The double vision in a single eye
    • Poor vision during the night
    • Being sensitive to the light
    • Frequent changes in the eyeglasses or contact lenses

Cataract Treatment

    When the symptoms appear, the vision may improve by changing the glasses or using magnifying lenses. However, the surgery probably would be needed to replace the lens and solve the problems if the treatments were not effective. The surgery of each eye performs at separate times usually with a four-week interval. The new technologies have made it possible without bleeding.

Cataract Surgery Complications

    Cataract surgery is a frequent procedure and mostly safe. However, it sometimes may include some complications that vary depend on the cataract’s type as well as the treatment conditions. The most common ones are:

    • Infection
    • Bleeding
    • Inflammation
    • Blindness
    • Blurry vision 
    • High or low eye pressure
    • Decrease in Vision
    • Double vision

What Is Glaucoma?

    Glaucoma is considered one of the most common eye diseases. Glaucoma is a group of eye disorders connected to the eye’s optic nerve, carrying information from the eye to the brain, and damages it. The extra amount of fluid, building up in the front of the eye actually is responsible for nourishment of eye and protect it, usually makes an increase in the pressure inside the eye. It can lead to blindness and permanent vision loss. It grows with no early symptoms or pain.

What Causes Glaucoma?

    Nutrition, high eye pressure, diabetes, age, race and high blood pressure; all of them can cause the glaucoma. The inheritance also plays an important role. The consumption of many medications, such as corticosteroids, antihistamines, common cold medications, and some intestinal and stomach medications, increasing the eye pressure and, as a result, causes blindness, are considered the other risk factors.

Who Gets Glaucoma?

    Anyone can catch glaucoma. Glaucoma is more common among people over 60 years old. It may reveal about the age 40 for those who have a family history of glaucoma or some health problems like diabetes. As it is mentioned above, the race is an important issue for example the African-American have the high potential for glaucoma.

Glaucoma Symptoms

    There are no especial symptoms for most people until the glaucoma is detected. However, the first symptoms include migraine headaches, Nausea, blurry vision, halos around lights, intense eye pain and frequent changes of the lens. So, it needs to see the doctor regularly to diagnose and treat it at the right time before it occurs.

What Are The Types of Glaucoma?

    What Are the Types of Glaucoma?
    Glaucoma includes several types. However, the two main are: the open-angle glaucoma (OAG) and angle-closure glaucoma(ACG) as they are described below.
    The word “angle” refers to the drainage angle inside the eye that controls the fluid, is frequently produced inside the eye, to leave.
    Open-angle glaucoma (OAG): It is regarded as the most common type of glaucoma that also is known as wide-angle glaucoma. In this case, the angle is open, but the cells carrying the fluid are disturbed. So the liquid accumulates in the eye and doesn’t flow out causing high eye pressure and as a result the blindness. This is a quiet disease with no apparent symptoms, and not show up until later stages that mostly noticeable vision loss occurs.
    Angle-closure glaucoma(ACG): It also called acute Angle-closure glaucoma or chronic angle-closure or narrow-angle glaucoma. Due to diseases such as Cataracts and ICE syndrome, the pupil is blocked and the fluid is accumulated at the back of it, so the iris coming out to close the angle and as a result glaucoma occurs. In Angle-closure glaucoma a sudden high eye pressure produces eye pain, headaches, halos around lights, dilated pupils, vision loss, red eyes, nausea and vomiting. It is more common in the ages 55-65 and more among women than men.

What Are The Treatments for Glaucoma?

    As there are no especial symptoms for glaucoma and it often is painless, people usually are careless about it. There is no definitive treatment for glaucoma. So, the best way to deal with it is prevention about it /to prevent it by using eye drops to control eye pressure and help prevent eye damage.as well as people over the age of 50 should see an ophthalmologist at least once a year. However, if the glaucoma has progressed, the treatment contains the medication, lasers or surgery depend on the severity to solve this problem.
    The cornea includes layers of cells that are responsible for protecting the eye and providing clear vision. It must be clear and smooth for good vision. If the cornea is scarred, swollen, or damaged by disease or infection, the light cannot reach at the retina and be focused well in the eye. So, as a result the blurry vision occurs. Therefore, to solve the problem corneal transplantation is suggested if it does not cure. The Corneal transplantation or corneal grafting refers to a condition that the cornea is replaced by a healthy donated one through a surgery. The transplantation is usually done by Penetrating Keratoplasty (PK), the full-thickness replacement procedure. However, the more modern procedure, Deep Anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) is an alternative procedure that newly is used and just the damaged part is replaced.

Why Corneal Transplantation is done?

    A cornea transplant is done to treat the damaged cornea and improve vision as well as to relieve pain and other symptoms of the cornea. After cataract and glaucoma, it is considered the third reason for blindness in the world. Injury to the eye is regarded as the most reason to perform the transplantation. If the cornea is damaged, it leads to the blurry vision.  The corneal transplant can improve and restore the patient’s vision. Also the damaged cornea does not look beautiful. So, the corneal transplantation can improve the beauty. The corneal transplantation can be done due to Medical conditions such as some infections of the eye that effect on the vision making it very thin or cloudy.  Transplantation may be needed after the cataract surgery as the corneal swells or become cloudy. this condition refers to pseudophakic bullous keratopathy.
    LASIK or laser in-situ keratomileusis refers to the eye surgery performed to improve vision those suffer from astigmatism or are nearsightedness, farsightedness and reduce the dependency on glasses or contact lenses. The cornea is changed permanently and reshaped through the quick, safe, and comfortable process. The laser vision correction procedure may be the only surgery that the patient does not feel any pain during and even after it.

Lasik Procedure

    It can be performed on one or both eyes at the same time. The patient will be awake during the procedure although one can use some medicines to relax. A few drops of anesthetic are used to numb the eyes. The eyes should keep open. So, an eyelid holder is used as well as a suction ring for lifting and flattening the cornea. The pressure from the eyelid holder and suction ring may be felt. After Lasik, the patient does not feel pain and there is no need to use any long-term treatment just the eye drops for removing the dryness of the eye surface.

Lasik Conditions

    There are some qualities to perform Lasik, including:

    • The patient should be at the age of 18
    • The patient’s eye score should not have changed in the past year or at least a change of more than 25% to 0.5
    • The cornea should also be thick enough, although it is different for the patients; the thickness of cornea is 1-6 for farsightedness, 1 to 10 diopters for nearsightedness, and for those with astigmatism is 0.5 to 6
    • The absence of eye diseases such as: Cataracts, Glaucoma, Dry eye syndrome and so on
    • Some physical illnesses such as Rheumatism, Immunodeficiency and progressed diabetes should prevent Lasik

    In general, Lasik is not recommended for those who are over 40 years old, those with aging eyes and pregnant and lactating women.

Lasik Advantages

    Lasik provides many advantages for the patients, including:

    • There is no pain or the patient may feel very little pain during the surgery and even after it
    • Vision is corrected immediately the day after the surgery
    • It can be made again after some years to improve the vision more
    • There is no need to use eyeglass or contact lens after Lasik

Lasik Disadvantages

    Similar to the other kinds of surgeries, lasik also may include some disadvantages, such as:

    • Reduced corneal strength and corneal thinning
    • The dryness of the eye surface
    • The risk of cataract
    • Eye sensitivity to light
    • Seeing halos mostly at night
    • Corneal infection

Optometrists in Yazd

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