بهترین دکتر جراحی سینه در یزد

Uterus and Ovary

Most people tend to have a child during their life. However, having a child is not sometimes as easy as imagined because of the physical disorders with either the male or the female partner, or maybe a combination of the different factors. Pregnancy mostly occurs within 12 months of trying that is defined as normal fertility. So, Infertility refers to the condition that a couple is struggling to have a baby more and more during a year without any successful result.

Infertility Causes

    The causes of infertility are regarded as an issue of female partner or male partner or those that are found between them. The causes associated with the female partner are known as female infertility and the causes associated with the male partner are referred as male infertility. In general, the common causes that affect both partners include:

    • Obesity that increase the likelihood of female infertility;
    • Environmental pollution;
    • Ovarian disorders for women;
    • Age;
    • Smoking and excess alcohol consumption.

Infertility Types

    Two types of infertility are considered, primary and secondary infertility. Primary infertility is found in the couple for who pregnancy does not occur after at least one year of try. The secondary infertility describes the condition in which the couple experience the pregnancy ;however, it was for a long time ago or a miscarriage and now they are unable to have a baby.

Infertility Treatment

    Fortunately, today there are various ways to treat infertility problems and it is not incurable anymore. Depending on the cause of the problem, a special treatment is recommended.

    • Stimulating ovulation: it is used to treat the women who have ovulation problems. The methods such as IUI, IVF and ICSI are used to provide the sufficient ovules. Actually, fertility drug options as well as hormone therapy are the main treatments that will resolve disorders of this kind.
    • Microinjection: it refers to a special and effective procedure in which the ovulations are stimulated and then sperm cell is physically microinjected into them. After 2 days, the proper divided embryos are subsequently transferred into the oviducts of the female partner (mother).
    • In Vitro Fertilization (IVF): IVF describes an infertility treatment performed in a laboratory environment and is used when fallopian tubes are both markedly damaged and disordered. IVF is also considered an effective procedure to treat problems rooted in male infertility/with male factor infertility.
    • Intrauterine Insemination (IUI): in this less invasive fertility treatment, when ovary releases ovules, the healthy sperms are transferred inside the mother’s uterus to increase the likelihood of fertilization.

Other Infertility Treatment Options

    If the fertilization does not happen through the mentioned treatments, following methods can be used to treat infertility:

    • Egg Donation or Oocyte Donation process is used for the women who cannot conceive with their own eggs. In this treatment, the eggs of the donor woman are collected, fertilized with the sperm in the laboratory and finally connected to the recipient mother’s uterus. In the same way, this procedure can be used for men with the problem of severing the sperm. Men can use sperm of a donor and the procedure is called sperm donation.
    • Embryo Donation or Donor Gamete refers to the process in which embryos are donated to another couple to experience having a baby. It is used when the recipient couple suffers from lack of healthy eggs or sperms, the inability of embryo to grow, etc.
    • Surrogacy is a treatment for fertility that is used when the mother cannot to carry and deliver the baby. So, a surrogate or birth mother carries the pregnancy for the couple. Surrogacy includes two types: the above-described process is referred to as the traditional surrogacy. The other type is called the gestational surrogacy, i.e. in vitro fertilization (IVF), which is discussed earlier.

    Hysterectomy refers to the surgical procedure of removing all or part of woman’s uterus. In addition to uterus, the process may involve fallopian tubes and ovaries. Hysterectomy is one of the most common procedures that more than one fifth of women population experience. It may be performed due to different reasons such as cancer of the uterus, cervix, or ovaries, chronic pain and heavy bleeding, etc.

Hysterectomy Types

    Hysterectomy is performed in different ways depending on the reason for the hysterectomy as well as the extent the organs are removed. These ways include followings:

    • Total hysterectomy: it is regarded as the most common hysterectomy type in which whole uterus including the cervix is be removed. Also, the ovaries and the fallopian tubes may be removed.
    • Partial hysterectomy or subtotal hysterectomy: in this method, the upper part of the uterus is removed and cervix leaves in place. The ovaries may not be removed through it.
    • Radical hysterectomy: the uterus, cervix, the upper part of the vagina and tissues around will be removed during radical hysterectomy and the fallopian tubes and the ovaries may not be removed. The radical hysterectomy usually is necessary in certain types of cancer.

    Besides the mentioned types, there are different types for hysterectomy including:

    • Abdominal Hysterectomy: the procedure involves an incision in the stomach and subsequently leaves a scar. It includes some complications such as bleeding, damage to nerves and tissues, and infection. However, it is considered one of the most common types of hysterectomy.
    • Laparoscopic Hysterectomy: in this less-invasive procedure, a laparoscopic, a tube with a camera are used, so that the surgeon can observe the operation on a video screen. The surgical instruments are inserted through small incisions in the abdomen or the vagina to remove the uterus in pieces.
    • Vaginal Hysterectomy: this kind of hysterectomy involves removing the uterus entirely through the vagina without any incision or scars to leave. It takes a shorter recovery time than the other types of hysterectomy.

Hysterectomy Side Effects

    Patients may experience some emotional side effects such as anxiety and depression as well as physical ones during the recovery time. The main physical side effects may include:

    • Injury to the involved organs;
    • Anesthesia problems;
    • Infection;
    • Severe bleeding;
    • Blood clots;
    • Pain during sex.

    The cervix is the lower part of the uterus that connects the uterus and vagina. When the cervix cells develop abnormally and spread to other organs, it leads to cervical cancer. If cervical cancer is diagnosed early, it is preventable. It is considered the fourth most common type of cancer for women that develops over time. However, it is regarded as one of the most treatable cancers.

Cervical Cancer Types

    In general, the cervical cancer is divided into two main types including:

    • Squamous cell carcinoma that is the most common one and deal with the thin flat cells in the outer part of the cervix on the bottom;
    • Adenocarcinoma that involves the column-shaped glandular cells in the cervical canal on the upper part of the cervix.

Cervical Cancer Causes

    A virus called HPV causes the cervical cancer. HPV have different types, more than 200 types; however, all of them do not lead to cancer. A weaken immune system, smoking, Birth control pills, sexual intercourse with a partner carrying HPV etc. are important factors which can spread the virus. Mostly women’s bodies can overcome HPV. However, it sometimes may result in cancer.

Cervical Cancer Symptoms

    As the cervical cancer occurs gradually and it takes several years to develop the cancer cells, the cancer may not reveal any symptoms at first. The cervix tissue cells change without any specific symptoms and cervical cancer usually reveal nothing until the changes lead to cancer in advanced stages. Moreover, the symptoms may be confused with something else. However, pelvic pain or Abnormal bleeding from the vagina are usually regarded as the first symptoms. The common symptoms that can be experienced include:

    • Pain in back and side caused by kidneys;
    • Painful urination;
    • Swelling of legs;
    • Constipation;
    • Urinary incontinence and bowel incontinence;
    • Pain during intercourse.

Cervical Cancer Diagnosis

    Gynecologists can diagnose the presence of the abnormal cells developing in cervix tissue through a pap smear test and HPV test. Biopsy is also taken if pap smear is analyzed abnormal.

Cervical Cancer Treatment

    The different treatments are available for cervical cancer depending on various factors such as age, the stage of the cancer, and general health status. The options may involve:

    • Surgery;
    • Radiation therapy;
    • Chemotherapy;
    • Immunotherapy;
    • Targeted therapy.

    The uterus refers to the hollow in the female reproductive system and the place where a baby grows during pregnancy. Uterine cancer or womb cancer is regarded as the most common cancer and occurs in the female reproductive system. When healthy cells of the uterus tissue grow in an uncontrolled way, the cancer happens/is caused. Like the other kinds of cancer, it may be malignant or benign. If uterus cancer is diagnosed early, it is treatable.

Uterine Cancer Symptoms

    The women with uterine cancer experience symptoms that may differ depending on the type of cancer. However, the most common symptoms include:

    • Irregular and heavy bleeding during menstrual period;
    • Unusual vaginal bleeding or discharge after menopause;
    • Painful urination;
    • Pelvic pain;
    • Pain during intercourse.

Uterine Cancer Causes

    The exact causes of uterine cancer are not clear. However, some conditions are considered the risk factors which develop the following conditions:

    • Taking overuse of tamoxifen, a hormone treatment for breast cancer, without prescribing;
    • Infertility, an irregular menstrual cycle and later menopause;
    • Exposure to Estrogen after the menopause;
    • Breast cancer and colon cancer;
    • Diabetes and hypertension;
    • Age; usually over the age of 50;
    • White people;
    • Obesity.

Uterine Cancer Diagnosis

    Some tests may be suggested in order to diagnose the uterine cancer. The options for  diagnosing this type of cancer are mentioned, here (Not all of them will be used for each paitient):

    • Pelvic examination: a speculum is used to investigate pelvic and access uterine, ovaries, vagina and rectum;
    • Hysteroscopy: in this examination, a thin telescope is inserted to the body to look inside the uterus;
    • Biopsy: it refers to the procedure of taking a sample of the womb to check the abnormal cells;
    • Pap test: it is used to examine the cervix for cancer cells.

Uterine Cancer Treatment

    There are different options to treat uterine cancer that one or a combination of them is used to improve the patient’s health. The treatments include hysterectomy or surgery to remove the uterine, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy and hormone therapy that are recommend by the doctor depending on different factors such as the stage of the cancer, age, the side effects, personal preferences and etc.
    Ovarian cancer is regarded as one of the most common cancers among women. It refers to the condition that deals with the female reproductive system and the ovaries. The two ovaries are responsible for producing eggs and estrogen and progesterone hormones. It is not usually diagnosed at the early stages, just about 20%, due to its similarity between the symptoms of the other minor diseases which are more common.

Ovarian Cancer Types

    There are many different ovarian cancer types most of which are distinguished by the name and type of the cell causing the cancer. However, the three common cells leading to ovarian tumors are considered the followings:

    • Surface Epithelium: it is considered the main type of ovarian cancers (Approximately 90 percent) covering the outer surface of the ovary. In most cases, they are benign tumors. The cancerous type of epithelial ovarian tumors is called carcinoma happening in women at the age of over 50. However, epithelial tumors are usually referred to as carcinomas.
    • Germ Cell Tumors: they are mostly benign and include less than 2 percent of ovarian cancers developing in the egg-producing cells. They are usually more common among younger women in their 20s. Germ cell tumors often can be treated through surgery and chemotherapy to preserve the fertility.
    • Stromal Tumors: Containing about five percent of the ovarian cancers, stromal tumors may appear in women at any ages. They are connected to cells forming the core of the ovaries which are responsible for producing female hormones such as estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone. Stromal tumors can be diagnosed earlier than the other types and usually cured with surgery.

Ovarian Cancer Stages

    The stage of a cancer meaning how much it has developed through the body to treat the condition according to the severity of the cancer. Ovarian cancer stages include stages through I to IV explaining the condition:

    • Stage I: the cancer deals with just the ovarian and hasn’t spread to the other parts through the body.
    • Stage II: the cancer goes to the pelvic area such as fallopian tubes and uterus.
    • Stage III: the cancer moves through the pelvis to the abdomen or the lymph nodes.
    • Stage IV: this stage is considered the advanced level of the cancer developing to the outside of the pelvis and involving the other parts such as liver, lungs etc.

Ovarian Cancer Causes

    In general, what causes ovarian cancer is not clear, though some factors are recognized to increase the risk of the disease. These factors are:

    • Age; usually over the age of 50;
    • Family history;
    • Later menopausal;
    • Taking birth control pills;
    • Obesity;
    • Hormone replacement therapy (HRT);
    • Prolonged taking estrogen hormone without progesterone;
    • Suffering from breast cancer, uterine cancer, or colon cancer;
    • Women with high ovulation rates;
    • Early Ovulation.

Ovarian Cancer Symptoms

    In most cases, the ovarian cancer does not reveal any especial symptoms until the latest stages. However, the symptoms include:

    • Weight loss;
    • Pelvic pain and discomfort behind the legs;
    • Abdominal bloating and swelling;
    • Quickly feeling full when eating;
    • Some changes in bowel habits including constipation;
    • Frequency urinary and frequent need to urinate.

Ovarian Cancer Diagnosis

    Usually different procedures are used to diagnose the ovarian cancer including:

    • Pelvic examination to investigate the ovaries and the nearby organs;
    • Pap smear test to screen for the cervical cancer;
    • Colonoscopy to screen for colon cancer;
    • Transvaginal sonography to detect the abnormal and even noncancerous tumors in the ovaries;
    • Blood tests (CA-125 Test);
    • Surgery.

Ovarian Cancer Treatment

    The ovarian cancer treatment depends on the parts dealt with the cancer cells, the patient’s general health, the ability for being pregnant, etc. There are different treatments for ovarian cancer mostly chemotherapy, surgery to remove one or both of ovaries, the uterus and radiotherapy as well as anticancer drugs. usually one or a combination of the mentioned  treatments are used to treat the ovarian cancer.
    C-section or caesarean section refers to the surgical operation that a baby is born through the abdomen and uterus instead of a vaginal birth or natural birth. The procedure may be planned before the delivery happens that is called a planned (elective) C -section. Also, there is emergency C -section that may be decided by the healthcare team. However, the procedure is done if there may be some complications for mother or baby through the natural birth and it is considered safer than a vaginal delivery, also if the mother has experienced a caesarean delivery before.

Reasons for C-section

    Cesarean delivery is usually prescribed due to some reasons commonly include:

    • Baby is descending in breech position (coming out with shoulder or feet first and the );body follows or lying in a bottom down position
    • Mother has a previous cesarean delivery;
    • Baby’s head or body is too big for the natural birth;
    • Mother’s health problems such as AIDS active genital herpes and high blood pressure;
    • Some problems with the umbilical cord;
    • Expecting two or more than two babies;
    • Reducing oxygen supply to the baby.

C-section Delivery Side Effects

    Although it is a widespread and preferred type of delivery, it carries some potential side effects and complications for both mothers and babies. The mother may experience problems such as:

    • Infection;
    • Some problems with blood such as bleeding, blood loss and blood clots;
    • Injuries to the other organs;
    • Reactions to anesthesia;
    • Potential risks for next pregnancies.

    The complications such as injury to the child during the surgery, breathing problems, etc. may happen to the baby.

Gynecologists in Yazd

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