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Stomach

    Gastric sleeve surgery or sleeve gastrectomy refers to a surgical procedure that is performed to decrease the amount of eaten food and lose weight by removing some portions of the gastric and connecting the remained parts. The surgery is usually done in two stages. As about 70 percent of the stomach is taken in the first stage. It will remain in the form of sleeve or a tube with the size of a banana after the procedure. The next stage will be done one year after the first if the patient is not satisfactory with the result/losing weight. The procedure is usually done laparoscopically meaning the use of some small incisions in the abdomen by using a camera and long instruments. However, the procedure is done for patients with BMI more than 40.

Gastric Sleeve Advantages

    There are some advantages for sleeve gastrectomy that may include:

    • Remaining the intestine if some parts of it are removed
    • Reducing hunger and appetite
    • No (need for) foreign object insertion
    • Losing weight in a period less than 18 months / rapid weight loss
    • Pylorus-preserving gastrectomy

Gastric Sleeve Disadvantages

    There are some disadvantages about gastric sleeve surgery that are considered more important than the other procedures of losing weight. They may involve the following:

    • Non-reversibility or Irreversibility (as some parts of gastric are removed)
    • Increasing gallstone formation due to the rapid weight loss
    • Leakage
    • Malnutrition (nutrition problems)

Gastric Sleeve Complications

    Like every surgery, gastric sleeve surgery involves/includes some complications such as:

    • Infection
    • Pneumonia
    • Blood cloths
    • Pain
    • Reactions to anesthesia
    • Nausea and vomiting
    • Constipation

Gastric Sleeve Complications

    Like every surgery, gastric sleeve surgery involves/includes some complications such as:

    • Infection
    • Pneumonia
    • Blood cloths
    • Pain
    • Reactions to anesthesia
    • Nausea and vomiting
    • Constipation

Recovery Period for Gastric Sleeve Surgery

    It usually takes 4-6 weeks for full recovery and the patients should consider some important tips to develop their conditions. They may include the following:

    • Delaying/ delay the bath and avoid using a hot tub/ sitting in hot tub until/for 3 weeks
    • Taking pain relievers / pain medicines / Painkillers
    • Drinking regular fluids to prevent dehydration
    • Taking medicines reduce the amount of acid produced by stomach
    • Avoid heavy activities
    • Walking and doing exercise

    It is important that patient need to see a doctor if the following symptoms occur:

    • Inability to drink fluids
    • Sever fever and chills
    • Stitch abscess (infection of suture track)
    • Nausea
    • Chronic pain

Diet after Gastric Sleeve Surgery

    It is important that some changes should be done in the way patient eats after the surgery to reach a healthy lifestyle and eating habits. Here, some recommendations are proposed to follow and keep in mind, including:

    • Eating pureed foods from 3 weeks after the surgery
    • A high-protein liquid diet from 2 weeks after the surgery
    • Eating softer foods / Eating soft solid foods from 4 weeks after the surgery
    • Eating ordinary foods in small amounts from 5 weeks after the surgery
    • Eating high-protein vegetables and fruits
    • Eating 3 mini-meals a day
    • Eating and chewing slowly
    • Taking dietary supplements every day

    In a normal condition, there is a muscular ring of tissue, called the lower esophageal sphincter, between the esophagus, a tube carrying food and fluids from mouth to the stomach, and stomach. The lower esophageal sphincter opens to allow food and fluids to pass into the stomach and closes to prevents returning them into the esophagus. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) refers to a digestive disease explaining the condition which the lower esophageal sphincter is weakened and interrupted, meaning not closed or opened properly, and the acidic stomach juices, food and fluids of the stomach/ stomach contents will go back into the esophagus.

Gastroesophageal Reflux Symptoms

    All people of different ages may experience gastroesophageal reflux. The common symptoms you may feel can include the following:

    • Having heartburn or a burning chest pain
    • Pain in breastbone/ Chest pain
    • Excessive saliva secretion
    • Difficulty and pain in swallowing / swallowing disorders
    • Respiratory problems
    • Nausea
    • Vomiting
    • Burping
    • Sore throat
    • Coughing

Gastroesophageal Reflux Causes

    the exact cause remains unknown / identified however there are considered different reasons for gastroesophageal reflux. Here, some of the effective factors causing gastroesophageal reflux may include:

    • Obesity
    • Pregnancy
    • Some certain medicines, including those for asthma, high blood pressure, antidepressants
    • Smoking, or being a secondhand smoker
    • Eating quickly/fast or stressful eating
    • Foods containing preservatives
    • Different types of fatty sauces
    • Drinking too much tea
    • Lying down immediately after meals
    • High caffeine foods and drinks
    • Wearing tight clothes
    • Excessive drinking alcohol
    • A high-stress lifestyle

Gastroesophageal Reflux Treatment

    Depending on the severity of the symptoms, there are different lines of treatment for GERD. Making some changes in the lifestyle as well as dietary habits firstly are recommended to treat gastroesophageal reflux. The effective medications such as Omeprazole, Pantoprazole, Rabeprazole, are also available to reduce the amount of acid produced by the stomach. Moreover, surgical options or a combination of these may be used to improve the patient’s condition. The surgical treatments involve fundoplication which is the most common surgical treatment and endoscopic procedures used a laparoscope through them.

Gastroesophageal Reflux Prevention

    There are some strategies to prevent GERD by following healthy behavioral habits including:

    • Eating small, frequent meals in moderate amounts of food
    • Stopping to eat before bedtime
    • Quitting smoking
    • Losing weight (if necessary)
    • Avoiding tight clothing
    • Avoiding certain medicines
    • Stress management

    The stomach is a muscular, sac-like organ of digestive system located on left part of the upper abdomen. This J-shaped organ that is connected to the esophagus and small intestine is responsible for holding, digesting and processing food eaten. It also helps to move the waste materials to the small intestine.

    Stomach cancer or gastric cancer refers to the condition in which the cancerous cells develop/grow in an abnormal way and form forming a tumor in the stomach gradually over the time. It is regarded as the fifth most common

Stomach Cancer Symptoms

    As the stomach cancer involves some general symptoms shared with the other less serious diseases, it may be difficult to diagnose the cancer in the right time until it develops entirely.

    The symptoms of gastric cancer that may exist at early stages may include:

    • Feeling of fullness during meals
    • Pain in breastbone/ Chest pain
    • Frequent indigestion
    • Feeling bloated after eating
    • Frequent Burping
    • Feeling bloated
    • Nausea or vomiting
    • Heartburn

    And the signs of gastric cancer in advanced stage of the disease are the following:

    • Dysphagia / Difficulty and pain in swallowing / Swallowing disorders/ Trouble swallowing
    • Blood in the stool or black stool /// black stools that may contain blood
    • Unexpected weight loss// unexplained weight loss
    • Fluid buildup in the stomach
    • Poor appetite/ Loss of appetite
    • Respiratory problems/disorders
    • Indigestion
    • Anemia
    • Fatigue

Stomach Cancer Causes

    In general, cancer begins with some changes in DNA structure of healthy cells that make the cells grow in an uncontrolled way. The exact cause of stomach cancer remains still unclear. However, the most common reason for the infected stomach is a type of bacteria called Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Also, the other major possible causes considered for stomach cancer may include eating pickles, smoking and heritage etc.

Stomach Cancer Treatment

    There are different treatment options for stomach cancer which are depend on factors such as severity and stage of the disease, patients’ general health etc. however, they may include the following:

    • Surgery
    • Chemotherapy
    • Radiation therapy
    • Chemoradiation
    • Targeted therapy
    • Immunotherapy
    • Clinical trials

Stomach Cancer Prevention

    It is unknown what causes stomach cancer. So, there is no certain way to prevent. However, the chances of having it may be decreased by following the below tips:

    • Eating fruit and vegetables in large amounts
    • Reducing salty and smoked foods
    • Keeping a healthy weight
    • Reducing alcohol consumptions
    • Avoiding smoking

    The pancreas is a flat pear-like gland about 6-10 inches long lying behind the stomach in the upper left side of the abdomen. It has two main functions and plays effective roles in the digestive system and the digestion process as being responsible for providing the body’s needed fuel from food eaten and the other duty of pancreas is regulating proper blood sugar by secretion of the important hormones, insulin and glucagon.

    Pancreas cancer occurs when the cancer cells grow through the pancreas tissue and form a tumor spreading quickly to the other parts. Like the other kinds of cancers, it isn’t detected in the early stages until it’s advanced.

Pancreatic Cancer Causes

    In general, some DNA changes and growing the mutated cells in an uncontrolled way lead to the cancer. The exact cause of pancreatic cancer still remains undefined. But, it is believed that there are some certain factors affecting the pancreas strongly to become cancerous and develop the cancer. They will be considered in the following sentences.

Pancreatic Cancer Symptoms

    Pancreatic cancer is known a silent disease as it does not reveal any noticeable symptoms specially in the early stages. However, the common symptoms experiencing by patients are provided here. They may include the following:

    • Jaundice (yellowing of the eyes and skin)
    • Pain in the abdomen spreading to back
    • Weight loss
    • Diabetes
    • Poor appetite
    • Blood clots
    • Depression
    • Fatigue

Pancreatic Cancer Risk Factors

    As it is mentioned above, the main cause of pancreatic cancer is unknown. However, there are some risk factors may increase the likelihood of catching it. These may include the following:

    • Family history of cancer and genetic syndromes
    • Age (mostly over 65)
    • Smoking and tobacco products
    • Obesity
    • Diabetes

Pancreatic Cancer Prevention

    As the main cause of pancreatic cancer is not clear, there are no definite ways to prevent it from happening. However, there are some certain activities to do to reduce chances of getting pancreatic cancer. They are the following:

    • A healthy diet full of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains
    • Keeping a healthy weight
    • Exercising
    • Quitting smoking
    • Limiting alcohol consumption
    • Exposure limit to chemicals

Pancreatic Cancer Complications

    In the advances stages, the pancreatic cancer can lead to serious side effects. The common complications during pancreatic cancer may include as below:

    • Small Intestine Obstruction
    • Bile duct obstruction
    • Cachexia
    • Jaundice
    • Weight loss
    • Nausea and vomiting
    • Pain
    • Blood Clots

Pancreatic Cancer Treatment

    Depending on the tumor’s location and the stage of cancer, multiple kinds of treatment options are used to control the disease by preventing it to spread or killing cancerous cells and improve the problem. There are considered different types of therapies for pancreatic cancer. They are including:

    • Surgery
    • Chemotherapy
    • Radiation therapy
    • Physical examination
    • Targeted therapy

    Peptic ulcer disease or Stomach Ulcers explains the condition that open sores are formed anywhere in the lining of the stomach or the duodenum (the first part of small intestine). It occurs when stomach acids reduce the digestive tract’s protective layer of mucus. The word “peptic” refers to any problem caused by acid.

Peptic Ulcer Causes

    There is not just a particular cause for ulcers; however, the common causes of peptic ulcer are considered the infections are occurred by a type of bacteria Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and those are caused due to use of some medications decreasing severity of pains and swelling (NSAIDs) such as Aspirin, Ibuprofen, Naproxen etc. Also, the amount of acid is increased due to Ellison syndrome that affect the stomach’s acid-producing cells.

Peptic Ulcer Symptoms

    A peptic Ulcer may have symptoms or not. However, the main symptoms for peptic ulcer usually appear immediately after eating food or when stomach is empty and patient is hunger (often between meals) as the acids make the pain sever and worse. However, the pain may be felt at any time during a day or night. The pain duration is not clear and may last from some minutes to even several hours. It is recommended to take food and fluids as well as the antacid medicines to improve the symptoms.

    Here, the most common symptoms for peptic ulcer are provided. They may include the following:

    • Heartburn
    • Blood in the stool or black stool
    • Struggling to digest fats/ trouble digesting fats/ disability in digesting fats/ difficulty swallowing food
    • Unexplained weight loss
    • Difficulty breathing
    • Appetite changes/ loss of appetite
    • Indigestion
    • Nausea or vomiting
    • Anemia
    • Bloating

Peptic Ulcer Complications

    If the peptic ulcer is not treated, some complications may occur. The main of them usually are considered the following:

    • Internal bleeding
    • Peritonitis
    • Perforation
    • Gastric obstruction
    • Penetration
    • Stomach cancer
    • Scar tissue

Peptic Ulcer Diagnosis

    The patient is examined to diagnose peptic ulcer through some tests including:

    • Blood tests
    • Breath test
    • Stool antigen test
    • Upper gastrointestinal (GI) X-ray
    • Endoscopy
    • Biopsy

Peptic Ulcer Treatment

    Some of the peptic ulcers treat on their own. However, the treatment depends on different features. The most important one is what caused the peptic ulcer. It plays an important role in treatment methods. The main purpose of treatment is to lessen the amount of stomach acids.

    Most of the time, the disease is healed during 1-2 months by proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), acid blocking drugs, if the peptic ulcers are not caused by H. pylori infection. But if there is a H. pylori infection, PPIs and antibiotic are usually prescribed. In this case, the treatment usually lasts some days.

    And if the disease is caused by NSAIDs, patient must stop taking them and another medicines can be substituted. Also, the treatment can continue by minimizing NSAIDs dosage or even using other medications alongside with NSAID.

    In some conditions in which the disease comes back or the peptic ulcers are bleeding etc. the surgery may be needed.

Are Peptic Ulcers Treatable?

    Some of the peptic ulcers cannot be treatable due to:

    • Using tobacco products
    • Not taking the medicine as prescribed by a doctor
    • H. pylori resistance to antibiotics
    • Consistent use of painkillers

    Gastritis refers to the inflammation or swelling of the stomach lining including glands which are responsible for the important duties of making stomach acid and the enzyme pepsin to breaks down the food and protecting itself by secreting mucus. Actually, the mucus covers the stomach lining to prevent the stomach tissue damage by the acids. When gastritis happens, the stomach lining produces less acid and enzymes that can lead to long-term problems.

Gastritis Types

    Gastritis can occur in two forms of acute and chronic.

    • Acute gastritis refers to the condition in which a sudden inflammation happens in stomach lining. Actually, the severe attacks start suddenly and take one or two days.
    • Chronic gastritis describes the condition that the gastric mucosa becomes inflamed through a long period of time.

Gastritis Causes

    Gastritis is caused by different factors. The common causes include the following:

    • Medication such as aspirin and NSAIDS
    • Infection with the Helicobacter pylori bacteria
    • Alcohol consumption
    • Rare, certain infections, such as those associated with AIDS
    • Allergic and autoimmune conditions
    • Radiation exposure
    • Stressful conditions
    • Digestive system surgeries
    • Having problems such as crohn’s disease

Gastritis Symptoms

    Gastritis includes different symptoms that can vary for each patient. However, some people may feel no symptoms. The most common symptoms of gastritis are considered the following:

    • Abdominal pain
    • Loss of appetite
    • Weight loss
    • Bloating and burping
    • Nausea and vomiting
    • Vitamin B12 deficiency
    • Numbness or tingling in the hands and feet
    • Indigestion
    • Anemia
    • Fatigue
    • Upset stomach
    • Black stools

Gastritis Diagnosis

    The doctor asks patients some questions about their family medical history, patient’s lifestyle as well as medications that they use etc. then he/she may recommend the following tests to diagnoses gastritis:

    • Physical examination
    • Upper GI endoscopy
    • Blood tests for anemia
    • Stool tests to check for blood and bacteria
    • Blood tests for liver and kidney functions
    • Breath test to check for stomach bacteria
    • Test for H. pylori

Gastritis Treatment

    Sometimes gastritis heals on its own/itself and there would not be needed any treatment or even the patients can usually teat themselves by using home remedies. However, the treatment will be different depend on the cause of problem that usually includes:

    • Following a particular healthy diet and preventing eating hot and spicy foods
    • Taking acid blocking drug to decrease the amount of stomach acid
    • Prescribing antibiotics and antacids in the case of /for gastritis caused by H. pylori infection
    • Providing B12 vitamin for gastritis caused by pernicious anemia

Gastroenterologists in Yazd

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