بهترین متخصص گوارش در یزد

Intestine

    Diverticular disease refers to a situation in which digestive conditions are associated with the large intestine (colon) involving small sacs or pockets that develop anywhere in the wall of the large intestine, particularly in the proximity of the rectum. Diverticular diseases usually appear in the forms of diverticula or diverticulosis and diverticulitis, the inflamed or infected occurrence of the disease, respectively.

Symptoms of Diverticular Disease

    In most cases, diverticulosis does not reveal any troublesome symptoms or complications. However, patients may experience a lower abdominal pain and fever in some occasions. The most commonly symptoms for diverticulitis may include:

    • Severe pain;
    • Constipation;
    • Diarrhea;
    • Bloating;
    • Fever or chills;
    • Nausea and vomiting.

Diverticular Disease Diagnosis

    The diverticular disease usually is diagnosed through some tests such as X-ray examination of the abdomen, colonoscopy, as well as CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis. However, some other diagnostic tests including a digital rectal exam, blood tests and angiography may be used.

Diverticular Disease Treatment

    Usually, there is no particular treatment for diverticulosis, the non-symptomatic diverticula. However, it can be prevented by following a healthy diet habits such as eating foods rich in fiber, fruits, and vegetables; reducing the amount of red meat; and exercising regularly. To treat the diverticulitis version of the disease, mostly antibiotics in forms of pill or injection, are recommended to be used. Moreover, in some special cases, surgery may be done to remove the affected part of the large intestine according to patient’s disease occurrence condition.

Diverticular Disease Complications

    As it is stated above, there is no symptoms for diverticulosis. So, it is considered the uncomplicated side of the disease. The serious complications such as infection, bleeding and perforation in the intestinal wall are connected to diverticulitis. If a hole occurs in the wall of the intestine, the contents penetrate into the surrounding cavity of abdomen which leads to the following conditions:

    • Peritonitis;
    • Abscesses;
    • Obstruction.

    A hernia refers to a condition in which an internal part of the body protrudes through the surrounding muscle or tissue. A hernia mostly occurs between the chest and hip or in groin area. It usually appears without any particular symptoms, although a kind of swelling may be seen in the place of occurrence.

Hernia Types

    There are different types of hernia. The most common ones are presented as below:

    • Inguinal hernia: the inguinal hernia is known as the most common type of hernias that develops as a swelling and mostly occurs in the groin or the abdominal wall if the small intestine or the bladder pushes through it. Generally, men experience this type of the hernia.
    • Femoral hernia: femoral hernia is associated with the groin hernias. It happens as a painful swollen tissue when the intestine carries the femoral artery into the inner upper part of the thigh close to the groin. Femoral hernia is most common type among women.
    • Umbilical hernia: umbilical hernia occurs when a part of the intestine squeezes through the tissue in or close to the umbilicus. Mostly, women during their pregnancy, the infants particularly those who were born earlier than the expected time and those under the age of 6 months old experience umbilical hernia.
    • Incisional hernia: incisional hernia refers to a hernia caused by former incision of the intestine, organs or other tissues produced through a prior surgery.
    • Hiatal hernia: a hiatal hernia describes a situation in which the upper part of the stomach swells through the hiatus, an opening in the diaphragm.

Hernia Causes

    The main causes of hernias are considered pressure and weakened muscles that can be congenital or due to the aging process. However, there are the other factors which lead to hernias including:

    • Lifting heavy objects;
    • Diarrhea or constipation;
    • Persistent coughing or sneezing;
    • Obesity;
    • Malnutrition;
    • Using tobacco products and smoking;
    • Doing heavy physical activity;
    • Having several birth-giving.

Hernia Symptoms

    Hernias may reveal no symptoms. However, the most common symptoms of hernia include:

    • Swelling;
    • Pain in the lower abdomen;
    • Chest pain;
    • Weakness;
    • Acid reflux;
    • Problems in swallowing.

Hernia Treatment

    Hernias mostly aren’t considered serious and life-threatening problems. However, they are not treated by their own. Depending on size and severity of the symptoms, there are different treatment options including lifestyle changes, medications and surgery available for hernias. Sometimes, the surgery must be performed to avoid the condition from getting worse.

    The two main types of surgery include the open surgery and laparoscopic surgery. The open surgery involves a cut at the place of hernia into the body to repair the swollen tissue and the weakened muscle and to put them together. Laparoscopic surgery is performed through some incisions done outside the abdomen or the groin.

    Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), also known as spastic colitis, mucus colitis, and nervous colon, refers to the common and chronic disorder affecting the digestive system and developing over the time. Usually, patients experience the problem first between the ages 20 and 30. It is more frequent in women twice than in men. IBS is not life-threatening, contagious or cancer-related but it may affect the way the patient lives.

Irritable Bowel Syndrome Causes

    The main cause of IBS and what exactly causes the condition is still unclear and uncertain. The factors such as some disorders between the nervous system and bowel muscles may lead to intestine’s sensitivity. Dietary and the digestive problems, environmental factors such as stress and daily hassles do not cause IBS; however, they can make the condition worse. So, they play effective roles in developing the disease, but not creating it. Moreover, as IBS is considered a more common condition among women, some researchers believe that hormones are effective in the IBS occurrence.

Irritable Bowel Syndrome Symptoms

    IBS symptoms can range in severity from mild to severe in various patients. People with IBS mostly experience the symptoms such as:

    • Feeling of fullness;
    • Pain in the abdomen;
    • Swelling of the abdomen;
    • Bloating;
    • Constipation and/or with diarrhea.

Irritable Bowel Syndrome Complications

    As it was mentioned, IBS is not considered a life-threatening disease; however, it may affect the overall health. some of the complications of IBS are as followings:

    • Dehydration;
    • Impacted bowel;
    • Food intolerance;
    • Malnutrition;
    • Bladder problems;
    • Depression.

Irritable Bowel Syndrome Treatment

    As the causes are unknown, there is no treatment for IBS. However, the main aim of treatment is supposed to manage the symptoms and improve the patient’s quality of life through recommended medicines, changes in dietary habits, exercising regularly, controlling stressful situations, improving sleeping habits, mental health therapies, and etc.

Irritable Bowel Syndrome Prevention

    ,People experience IBS in different ways. However, there are some common symptoms, factors and triggers affecting and intensifying the conditions. To prevent IBS, one should follow safe lifestyle habits such as having a healthy diet, as well as managing stress and anxiety which play effective roles in catching IBS.
    Colorectal Cancer (CRC) refers to a condition dealing with the development of the cancer cells in the colon or large intestine. Depending on where the cancer affects, it is also known with the names of bowel cancer, colon cancer as well as rectal cancer. Colorectal Cancer can be considered a life- threatening disease. However, it may occur in the forms of benign or malignant.

Colorectal Cancer Types

    There are different occurrence states for Colorectal Cancer. Adenocarcinomas is considered the most common type of the colorectal cancer that develops in the forms of polyps inside the colon and rectum through the gastrointestinal tract. The cancer may appear in the other less common forms such as:

    • Primary colorectal lymphomas;
    • Gastrointestinal stromal tumors;
    • Leiomyosarcoma;
    • Carcinoid tumors;
    • Melanomas.

Colorectal Cancer Causes

    The main cause of Colorectal Cancer (CRC) is unclear. However, there are some certain risk factors affecting the patient, intensifying the symptoms and developing the disease. These factors include:

    • Unhealthy diet;
    • Smoking and using tobacco products;
    • Alcohol abuse;
    • Family history of colorectal cancer and inherited syndromes;
    • MYH-associated polyposis;
    • Age;
    • Having ulcerative colitis disease;
    • Inactivity;
    • Obesity.

Colorectal Cancer Symptoms

    The Colorectal Cancer may often reveal no symptoms and it is called as a silent disease. However, the common symptoms include the followings:

    • Changes in bowel habits including diarrhea, constipation, or narrow stools lasting a few days;
    • Unexplained feeling of fullness even after not eating;
    • Gas and bloating;
    • Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes);
    • Blood in stool;
    • Weakness and fatigue;
    • Bleeding from the rectum;
    • Pain in the abdomen;
    • Anemia caused by iron deficiency;
    • Changes in bowel movements;
    • Unexpected weight loss;
    • Vomiting.

Colorectal Cancer Treatment

    In early stages, a colonoscopy may be used to improve the disease by removing the polyps or the cancer cells. However, when the disease develops, there are different ways of treatment to overcome the disease depending on the diagnosis and condition. The treatment options include:

    • Surgery;
    • Radiation therapy;
    • Chemotherapy;
    • Immunotherapy;
    • Targeted therapy.

    Celiac disease or celiac sprue explains a serious and chronic autoimmune problem dealing with digestive system and the lining of the small intestine. Actually, celiac is considered the reaction of the immune system to the protein gluten. This disorder can happen at any ages.

Celiac Disease Symptoms

    The celiac disease may reveal no symptoms or even the symptoms may not appear until later stages. However, as the celiac disease is a life-long condition, the symptoms can vary for each patient from mild to severe and develop over the time. They also differ among children and adults. The common symptoms of the celiac disease are:

    • Itchy skin rash called dermatitis herpetiformis;
    • Injuries of the nervous system such as numbness and tingling in legs and feet;
    • Diarrhea;
    • Nausea and vomiting;
    • Abdominal bloating;
    • Abdominal pain;
    • Constipation;
    • Malnutrition and Vitamin K, D, and B12 deficiency;
    • Joint pain;
    • Loss of bone density;
    • Nosebleed;
    • Mouth ulcers and changes in the color of teeth;
    • Depression and panic attacks;
    • Blood in urine and stools;
    • Foul-smelling stools;
    • Fatigue and weakness;
    • Anemia;
    • Often feeling hungry;
    • Fluid retention;
    • Weight loss;
    • Infertility.

Celiac Disease Causes

    As it is stated above, the patients with celiac are sensitive to the gluten. So, the small bowel becomes inflamed and does not digest and absorb the food or medicines with gluten effectively. If patients with the autoimmune diseases receive gluten, the immune system mistakenly attacks the cells of the small intestine. It is also considered a hereditary problem and if it runs through the family, close relatives and family members are at the higher risk of getting the disease.

Celiac Disease Complications

    If the patient still continues eating gluten or the disease is left untreated, it can lead to some additional problems such as:

    • Some types of cancers such as Lymphoma, Adenocarcinoma and Esophageal cancer;
    • Refractory diseases;
    • Lactose intolerance;
    • Possibility of hair fall;
    • Bone weakening or osteoporosis;
    • Negative effect on children’s height.

Celiac Disease Treatment

    The treatment for celiac is still uncertain; however, following a gluten- free diet can play an effective role to control and improve the condition. It is important to know that gluten is found in the grains such as wheat, barley, farina, graham flour, rye etc.
    Crohn’s disease, ileitis or enteritis, is a type of the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). It is considered a chronic problem that develops gradually and over time anywhere in the digestive tract involving the mouth to the anus. The involved parts particularly the end of the small intestine and the beginning of the large intestine become inflamed.

Crohn's Disease Symptoms

    The symptoms of Crohn’s disease usually depend on the affected part of the gastrointestinal tract. The signs also vary for each patient. However, the most common symptoms may include:

    • Diarrhea;
    • Constipation;
    • Loss of appetite;
    • Weight loss;
    • Abdominal pain;
    • Rectal bleeding;
    • Blood in stool;
    • Night sweats;
    • Loss of normal menstrual cycle;
    • Mouth ulcers;
    • Fatigue;
    • Fever;
    • Anemia.

Crohn's Disease Causes

    The certain causes of Crohn’s disease are not clear. It is believed that malfunctioning of the immune system may cause the problem. However, the other factors also play an effective role in developing the disease. These factors can involve:

    • Smoking and using other tobacco products;
    • Family history;
    • Genetics;
    • Environmental factors.

Crohn's Disease Diagnosis

    Although there is no a certain way to diagnose Crohn’s disease, a combination of procedures and tests are used to detect the disease such as:

    • Blood tests;
    • Stool tests;
    • Colonoscopy;
    • Endoscopy;
    • CT Scan;
    • MRI.

Crohn's Disease Treatment

    Crohn’s disease still remains incurable, although the main treatments including medicines and surgery are used regarding the factors such as the symptoms, severity of the disease, the inflammation area and the previous treatments received etc. to manage the condition and reduce the symptoms.

Crohn's Disease Complications

    Crohn’s disease may cause some additional problems and complications which include:

    • Bowel obstruction;
    • Ulcers;
    • Fistulas around the anus;
    • Inflammation in joints, eyes, and skin;
    • Colon cancer;
    • Medication side effects.

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) refers to a type of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) which is a chronic condition affecting the lining of large intestine and rectum, and the end of the bowel in the form of the inflammation and ulcers in gastrointestinal (GI) tract.

Ulcerative Colitis Symptoms

    Symptoms of ulcerative colitis usually develop gradually. Not every patient with UC experiences the following symptoms since the severity of the inflammation and the parts involved are varied. The symptoms may include:

    • Crampy abdominal pain;
    • Diarrhea with blood or pus;
    • Rectal bleeding and pain;
    • Delayed growth in children;
    • Fatigue;
    • Weight loss;
    • Constipation;
    • Fever;
    • Anemia;
    • Sudden urges to defecate.

Ulcerative Colitis Causes

    Although the exact cause of UC is still unknown, it is considered to be related to the immune system that mistakenly attacks and damages the healthy cells of the colon. It is also believed that the ulcerative colitis may root in genetic or even a combination of daily factors such as stress and medication side effects are also involved.

Ulcerative Colitis Complications

    The complications associated with the ulcerative colitis are usually considered local; just the intestinal tract is involved and systematic complications affect all the body parts. To sum up, ulcerative colitis complications include:

    • Inflammation of eyes, liver and joints;
    • Skin problems;
    • Blood clots;
    • Large-bowel perforations;
    • Mouth ulcers;
    • Arthritis;
    • Weakening of bones;
    • Colon cancer;
    • Dehydration;
    • Bleeding.

Ulcerative Colitis Diagnosis

    By asking and knowing about symptoms and patient’s medical history and physical examination, general practitioner uses some tests and procedures to diagnose the condition. These tests and procedures include:

    • Blood tests;
    • Stool sample;
    • Colonoscopy;
    • Biopsy of the intestinal tissue;
    • Radiography;
    • Flexible sigmoidoscopy;
    • X-rays;
    • CT scan.

Ulcerative Colitis Treatment

    There still is no certain cure for ulcerative colitis; however, depending on the severity of the disease and the symptoms, alterations in diet, medications or surgery are recommended to manage the condition, obtain remission, and improve the quality of life.

Gastroenterologists in Yazd

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