بهترین متخصصان کبد یزد

Liver

      Metastasis describes the moving of cancer cells to new parts of the body. Actually, metastasis refers to the condition in which the cancer cells spread from the primary site to different areas of the body mostly through the lymph system or bloodstream. If the cancerous cells travel to the near parts or areas, it is known as the regional metastasis and if the new tumor forms in the distant parts, it is  called distant metastasis. The bone metastasis is known the most common type of metastasis cancer that is caused by the spread of the primary bone cancer cells. It usually has no particular symptoms; however, its type and severity depends on the size of the cancerous cells and the involved area.

    Metastatic Cancer Treatments

      Treating metastatic diseases aims to stop or control the growth of cancer cells. They all depend on the different factors including:

      • Size of the cancer tumors;
      • Where the cancer has spread;
      • Number of cancer tumors;
      • Former treatment used;
      • Type of the primary cancer;
      • Age;
      • General health.

      However, the treatments for metastatic cancer generally include two types which are affected by the factors such as originated area and to what instance the cancer spreads through the body. The treatments are:

      • Local treatments: the treatment concerned with the involved area(s) to reduce or remove tumors.
      • Systemic treatments: it refers to the treatments such as chemotherapy and radiation which are used to affect all the body to attack the cancer cells.

      The liver plays important roles in the body. It is responsible for regulation of metabolism, protein synthesis, filtering blood from toxins, fighting infections etc. Cirrhosis is referring to the condition that the healthy liver is damaged gradually and over a long period of time due to different diseases and factors including hepatitis, chronic alcohol consumption and infection. Each time the liver is damaged, it tries to improve itself that it/ this process of repairing may make some disorders and scars. More and more scars may lead to liver failure or it work improperly.

    Causes of Cirrhosis

      Cirrhosis usually appears due to the different diseases and conditions such as the following:

      • Fat accumulation in the liver;
      • Chronic hepatitis C;
      • Chronic hepatitis B;
      • Chronic alcoholism;
      • Infection;
      • Cystic fibrosis;
      • Genetic digestive disorders;
      • Biliary obstruction;
      • Continuous contact with toxins.

    Cirrhosis Symptoms

      Cirrhosis does not reveal any symptoms at early stages but when the disease develops and liver gets worse, the symptoms may include:

      • Loss of appetite;
      • Weight loss;
      • Intense itchy skin;
      • Nausea;
      • Fatigue;
      • Yellowing of skin and the eyes;
      • Fluid accumulation in the abdomen;
      • Swollen feet;
      • Blood vomiting.

    Cirrhosis Treatment

      Cirrhosis isn’t treatable. However, the existing treatments try to control patient’s condition and stop it from getting worse. The selected treatment depends on the disease development, the extent to which the liver is damaged as well as causes of the disease. The treatment can be changed from alcohol prohibition, taking medications to liver transplantation.

    What Does Liver Do?

      With the color of dark reddish-brown and the weight of about 1.5 kilograms for adults, liver is considered the largest solid organ in the body. Liver is located in the upper right side of the abdomen and below the diaphragm. It includes two main lobes, the right and left ones, which are departed by the falciform ligament.

      Liver plays important roles in the body and its main functions include receiving the food from the digestive tract and processing nutrients to store the needed energy, providing the highest amount of proteins for the body and controlling their metabolism, making certain vitamins such as E, D, A and K. This vital organ also helps the body fight infections by removing bacteria from the blood and detoxifying potentially side effects of some certain medications.

    Liver Transplantation

      A liver transplant describes a lifesaving operation that the diseased liver is removed and replaced by a healthy donor one. Generally, the liver transplantation is regarded as a high risk major surgery in which the transplanted liver may be rejected by the receiver body.

    When Is Liver Transplantation Needed?

      Liver transplantation is required when the liver fails and the failure can be seen in the two following conditions :

      • Acute Liver Failure happens suddenly due to some liver serious injuries such as hepatitis, medical-induced injuries and infections.
      • Chronic liver failure refers to the condition in which the liver repairs itself over the time. However, some scars remain and act as long-term problems which leads to chronic liver failure.

    Liver Transplantation Types

      Generally there are three different types of liver transplantation that can be offered according to the patient’s situation. Followings are the different types of liver transplantation:

      • Deceased Donor Liver Transplant (DDLT): The procedure is performed when a brain death happens and the healthy liver can be donated to the recipient for transplantation  according to the patient’s blood group and size of the liver.
      • Living Donor Liver Transplantation (LDLT): Living-donor transplantation refers to the surgical procedure in which a part of the donor liver is transplanted to the patient’s liver.
      • Split Type of Liver Transplant (STLT): Split donation refers to the situation in which the donated liver is divided to the left and right lobes and the transplantation is performed for two patients, an adult and a child. The larger right lobe usually is transplanted to the adult the small lobe will be for the child.

    Liver Donor Requirements

      Each volunteer for transplantation should be of the same blood type as well as the same body size of the patient. Some factors such as age, race, and sex are not important for transplantation. However, the donor is examined in terms of some factors such as:

      • Potential liver disease’s symptoms;
      • Alcoholism;
      • Cancer;
      • Infection;
      • Hepatitis diseases;
      • HIV.

      The gallbladder is a small organ in the form of a pear on the right side of abdomen below the liver with the function of releasing and holding bile, a dark green liquid to digest fats, in the small intestine. However, if the obstruction occurs in the cystic duct usually by gallstones, the gallbladder may be inflamed and cholecystitis happens. Actually, cholecystitis refers to the situation in which the gallbladder is swollen and irritated. The other problems such as bile duct disorders, tumors, serious diseases as well as infections can also cause cholecystitis. Cholecystitis should be treated otherwise it may result in some serious problems e.g. the gallbladder rupture. The gallbladder removal or bypassing the obstruction may be done to treat the disease.

    Cholecystitis Symptoms

      The most common symptoms of cholecystitis are mentioned as followings:

      • Severe pain in the right side of the abdomen;
      • Pain in the right shoulder or back;
      • Swollen abdomen;
      • Nausea;
      • Vomiting;
      • Fever;
      • Sweating;
      • Losing appetite.

    Cholecystitis Causes

      Mostly cholecystitis is caused due to gallstones. However, it may be caused due to the other reasons such as:

      • Bile duct problems;
      • Bile duct blockage;
      • Infections;
      • kidney stones;
      • Tumors.

      Gallstones are considered the most common cause of biliary colic. Biliary colic refers to the condition in which a stone obstruct the cystic duct. So, the bile cannot pass through it to enter the intestine. The bile ducts’ cells try to push the gallstones which causes pain. Biliary colic may also be caused by a tumor or a stricture of the bile ducts.

    Biliary Colic Symptoms

      Pain in the upper part of the abdomen, the back, or the right shoulder is considered the main symptom of biliary colic. It can also be felt in the center of the upper abdomen. Moreover, the patients may experience nausea and vomiting.

    Biliary Colic Causes

      Different factors are effective to cause biliary colic; however, the gallstones are regarded as the main cause. In addition to gallstones, there are a number of conditions to cause biliary colic including:

      • Bile Duct obstruction;
      • Gallbladder inflammation;
      • The bile ducts infections;
      • Pancreatitis;
      • Sex (more common among women than men);
      • Having diabetes or insulin resistance;
      • Digestive diseases;
      • Having cirrhosis;
      • Losing weight fast;
      • Family history;
      • Age above 40;
      • Obesity;
      • Anemia.

    Biliary Colic Treatment

      Treatment for biliary colic depends on treatment of the gallstones. Cholecystectomy is regarded as the main treatment. It refers to the surgical procedure of removing the gallbladder that can be performed in two ways, laparoscopic cholecystectomy and open cholecystectomy. The other procedures include the use of sound waves in order to break the gallstones up into small pieces as well as taking medication to dissolve gallstones for a longer period of time.

    Biliary Colic Diagnosis

      The physicians usually diagnose presence of biliary colic by performing some examinations such as:

      • Physical examination;
      • Blood tests;
      • Ultrasound of the abdomen;
      • HIDA scan.

      Your gallbladder is a small pear-shaped object on the right side of the abdomen located below the liver. The gallbladder holds a digestive fluid called bile which is released into the small intestine to digest fats and detoxify the body. It may be trapped in inside the gallbladder and create some small pieces of bile masses called gallstones which are responsible for protecting the small intestine from poisons. They are different in size, the biggest come in the size of a golf ball. However, this defensive procedure of the body may continue until the gallbladder is blocked by gathering of the gallstones and removal surgery will be required to solve the problem out.

    Types of Gallstones

      Gallstones can be mostly seen as three main kinds of the mixed stones containing cholesterol and salts, the yellow-green color cholesterol stones and the pigment ones which are made of bilirubin which are darker and smaller than the former in color and size, respectively.

    What Causes Gallstones?

      Here, the most common causes of Gallstones are reported. They may include:

      • High levels of cholesterol inside the gallbladder;
      • High levels of a waste product called bilirubin inside the gallbladder;
      • The filled gallbladder that doesn’t empty properly.

    Gallstone Risk Factors

      The risk factors that can be effective to develop the gallstone are as the following:

      • Race (American Indian or Mexican American descent);
      • Sex (more common among women than men);
      • High-dose estrogen medicines;
      • Cholesterol-Lowering Medicines;
      • Age (the risk increases over the age 40);
      • Unhealthy diet;
      • Having Cirrhosis;
      • Losing weight fast;
      • Family history;
      • Having diabetes;
      • Obesity;
      • Pregnancy.

    Symptoms of Gallstone

      Gallstones are called the silent stones because in many cases, patients suffering from gallstones do not experience any symptoms unless the severe pain due to moving gallstones through the bile duct. The pain is usually felt at the upper right side of abdomen, the back, or the right shoulder. It might take some minutes to several hours. However, sweating, vomiting, fever and jaundice can be regarded as the other symptoms.

    Gallstone Diagnosis

      The doctor examines the patient for noticeable changes in the color of eyes and skin. The yellow color can be a sign of jaundice, which is a result of the high bilirubin of the body. However, the doctors use a number of different tests to diagnose gallstones. These tests include as the following:

      • Physical examination;
      • Blood tests;
      • Ultrasound;
      • CT scan;
      • MRCP test;
      • Endoscopic ultrasound;
      • HIDA Scan;
      • MRCP.

    Treatments for Gallstone

      Sometimes, there is no need for any medical treatments and the gallstones may disappear on their own most of the time. However, depending on the patient, location and size of the gallstones, different treatment options from dietary modifications to the removal surgery can be used to remove the gallstones. Some of these treatments are as followings:

      • Diet programs;
      • Laparoscopy;
      • Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for gallstones (ESWL);
      • Medications;
      • Surgery.

      Hepatitis A refers to a contagious condition that the liver is inflamed and affected by a hepatitis A virus (HAV). The disease can be seen in different occurrence states from mild to severe. If someone is ever exposed to the disease, he or she will be permanently protected against the disease.

    Symptoms of Hepatitis A

      The symptoms of Hepatitis A appear a few weeks after the patient has caught the virus and they are not revealed immediately. It is usually not a chronic disease and the symptoms remain for two or at most six months. The main symptoms for hepatitis A can include the followings; however, all of them may not develop for everyone.

      • Dark urine;
      • Abdominal pain;
      • Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes);
      • Loss of appetite;
      • Nausea and vomiting;
      • Fatigue;
      • Diarrhea;
      • Fever.

      The symptoms are more frequent among adults rather than the children especially children under the age of 6 years old.

    Causes of Hepatitis A

      Hepatitis A is caused by a virus (HAV) that is mostly transmitted through the following conditions:

      • Drinking and eating the contaminated stuff;
      • Having sex with the person conveying the virus;
      • Inadequate sanitation and poor personal hygiene;
      • Being in a close contact with the infected things or patients.

      However, it is important to know that the virus is not transmitted through sneezing and coughing as well as the blood to other people.

    Treatment of Hepatitis A

      There is not any specific treatment for hepatitis A. In most cases, the liver protects itself from hepatitis A virus during 2 – 6 months in an automatic way. Usually, the treatment procedures are used to reveal symptoms and some set of common treatment options are recommended  to improve patients’ conditions. These treatments may include:

      • Resting;
      • Hospitalization (if required);
      • Providing adequate nutritional balance;
      • Avoiding the unnecessary medications such as anti-vomiting and anti-diarrhea ones;
      • Preventing alcohol use;
      • Following the personal hygiene habits including washing hands and using paper napkins.

    Prevention of Hepatitis A

      The effective way to prevent hepatitis A is considered to get vaccinated that it is needed to be done more than one shot. Moreover, as it was mentioned above, personal hygiene practices have an important role in prevention of hepatitis A.

    What is Hepatitis B?

      Hepatitis B describes one of the most serious kinds of hepatitis conditions that the liver deals with. It is caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) that may result in acute or chronic infection. If hepatitis B is not treated, it can lead to death. In some cases, the cirrhosis or liver cancer may happen due to the hepatitis B’s infection.

    Hepatitis B Symptoms

      The symptoms of this viral infection may not appear till 1 – 6 months after the patient catches the virus. The patients with hepatitis B mostly experience the following signs:

      • Dark urine;
      • Abdominal pain;
      • Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes);
      • Loss of appetite;
      • Nausea and vomiting;
      • Fatigue;
      • Diarrhea;
      • Fever.

    How Is Hepatitis B Transmitted?

      The most common ways through which Hepatitis B is spread can be as followings:

      • Mother to child;
      • Infected medical, dental and cosmetic objects;
      • Needle sharing;
      • Infected blood or blood products and different body fluids;
      • Unprotected sexual relationships;
      • Objects contaminated with infected blood.

    Hepatitis B Prevention

      The Hepatitis B is a vaccine – preventable disease. So, vaccination is considered an effective way to prevent the disease. Additionally, avoidance unprotected sexual relations, the basic personal and public hygiene principles need to be followed strictly.

    Hepatitis B Diagnosis

      A number of blood tests are used to check the surface of antigen, the surface of hepatitis B antibody, and its core antibody. Liver ultrasound and liver biopsy may also be required to diagnose the disease.

    Treatment of Hepatitis B

      There is no specific treatment for Hepatitis B. Usually, the doctors recommend different medications to reduce the symptoms and improve the conditions. Also,
      the patients can increase their life quality obeying some tips such as:

      • Avoiding consumption of high caloric foods as well as foods with preservatives and additives;
      • Practicing periodic ultrasound scans;
      • High consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables;
      • Avoiding drinking alcohol;
      • Taking Vitamin B1;

      It is important to know that the Hepatitis B virus can live in the non-living physical environments for months. However, the virus can be killed by boiling the infected objects.

    What is Hepatitis C?

      Hepatitis C is a member of the hepatitis family which is caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV) describing the infection and inflammation of the liver. Hepatitis C can be seen in both acute and chronic states. There are no symptoms with the acute form. It is considered the mild version of the disease that usually lasts for a few weeks. While, in the chronic condition, several injuries are caused in the liver over time, because of which the patient will experience liver cirrhosis as well as liver cancer. This severe form of the disease can be life-threatening.

    How is Hepatitis C Transmitted?

      Hepatitis C virus mostly can be caught through the activities such as:

      • Unprotected sexual relationships;
      • Unsafe health care;
      • Infected medical, dental and cosmetic objects;
      • Needle sharing;
      • Unsafe tattooing or piercing practices ;
      • Blood, blood products, and the objects contaminated with infected blood;
      • Infected blood, blood products, or different body fluids;
      • Mother to child during childbirth.

    Hepatitis C Symptoms

      Patients with Hepatitis C may experience the symptoms similar to those of the flu. The most common symptoms of Hepatitis C include:

      • Fever;
      • Fatigue;
      • Jaundice;
      • Dark urine;
      • Joint pain;
      • Loss of appetite;
      • Nausea and vomiting;
      • Belly pain.

    Hepatitis C Diagnosis

      The acute form of hepatitis C reveals no symptoms. So, except a few cases, Hepatitis C is usually difficult to diagnose through the acute phase. However, physical examination, blood tests as well as some other kinds of tests are used to check the liver and diagnose the Hepatitis C.

    Hepatitis C Treatment

      There is not any particular treatment for the acute form of hepatitis C and patients must be treated if Hepatitis C goes to the advanced phase, the chronic phase of hepatitis C. In this condition, physicians usually prescribe medications. However, the treatment procedure usually takes about 24 – 48 weeks.

    Hepatologists in Yazd

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