Kidney stones or urolithiasis refers to the procedure of stone formation in the urinary system including the kidneys and bladder that can affect all ages. It is regarded as the third most common urinary tract disease. There are five major types of urinary stones based on their chemical composition including calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, struvite, uric acid, and cysteine.
In most cases, it reveals no signs at all unless when it moves into the ureter. However, the main symptom of Kidney stone disease is the severe pain that usually happens with nausea or even vomiting as the stone travels from kidneys to the ureter. The other symptoms may include the following:
- Painful micturition;
- Severe pain in the side and back, below the ribs, lower abdomen and groin;
- Pain on urination;
- Pink, red or brown urine;
- Infection causes a fever and Chills;
- Persistent urge to urinate;
Kidney stones can be formed due to different factors such as lifestyle factors, hereditary, metabolic disturbance, environmental etc. However, the main cause of kidney stones in the body is considered drinking not enough water. Lack of water leads to an increase in the level of uric acid in urine and the kidney stones may occur in an excessive acidic environment. Moreover, the possible medical conditions causing kidney stones include:
- Crohn’s disease;
- History of urinary tract infections;
- Renal tubular acidosis;
- Medullary sponge kidney;
- Metabolic disorders;
- Digestive diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease;
- Overdose of vitamin C and calcium.
Treatment for the kidney stone depend on the size of them. Usually, there is no special treatment for small kidney stones if there is no obstruction or infection in the urinary tract. In this case, patient is recommended to drink large amount of water to pass the kidney stones away through voiding urine. However, there must be used the medical treatments about the large kidney stones alongside infection or severe pain. The kidney stone crushing is used to break down them into small fragments. Also, some medicines such as lycopodium, sarsaparilla, and cantharis are prescribed to help removing them.
As it is mentioned the large kidney stones need to be broken into small pieces to treat the disease. Currently, the treatment options include the following procedures:
- Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL)
- laparoscopic ureterolithotomy.
- Nephrolithotomy (PCNL)
- Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery (RIRS)
- Open Surgery
It is important to know that choosing each procedure as the treatment method depends on the size and location of the kidney stones.