Azoospermia Treatments (Obstructive & Non-obstructive)


Today, fertility problems are among the main issues in families, and sometimes, they lead to harmful social problems. As studies have shown, %15 of infertile men have azoospermia, or in other words, their semen has no sperm. Although azoospermia may cause serious diseases such as testicular cancer, it can be treated by surgery and taking medicine.

Azoospermia treatment

What Is Azoospermia?

Azoospermia or no sperm count is a fertility disorder in which no sperm is found in a man's semen analysis. Different factors such as hormonal problems, genetic disorders, unhealthy lifestyle, aging, vasectomy, damage to the sperm-delivery system, chronic infectious diseases, obstruction in the epididymis due to trauma, etc. may cause azoospermia. In general, azoospermia has two types; Obstructive Azoospermia (OA) and Non-Obstructive Azoospermia (NOA).

Types of Azoospermia

As mentioned earlier, azoospermia is classified into two categories; obstructive and non-obstructive. Obstructive azoospermia occurs when sperm cannot enter the semen due to the blockage in the reproductive tract, and non-obstructive azoospermia occurs when there are primarily hormonal problems or abnormalities in sperm growth.

Obstructive Azoospermia (OA)

This type of azoospermia, which is also known as post-testicular azoospermia, may occur due to congenital anomalies, infection or inflammation of the reproductive system, previous trauma or injury, and retrograde ejaculation (semen moves backward and enters the bladder). Generally, obstructive azoospermia doesn’t have a vivid symptom but if you feel pain at the time of ejaculation, you’d better take a semen analysis.

Azoospermia is a fertility disorder in which no sperm is found in a man's semen.


اسپرموگرام
Read more: Semen Analysis: Procedure & Results

Non-obstructive Azoospermia (NOA)

Non-obstructive azoospermia may happen due to different problems such as varicocele, hormonal imbalance, genetic or chromosomal abnormalities, side effects of medications or hormonal supplements, damage to the testicular, radiation, and toxin exposure, chemotherapy, etc. Also, damage to the hypothalamus or pituitary gland may cause this type of azoospermia. For diagnosing non-obstructive azoospermia, your doctor will examine your blood and semen sample and ask some questions about your fertility history, previous surgeries on your reproductive tracts, history of addiction to drugs or alcohol, etc.

آزمایش های لازم قبل از اهدای اسپرم
Read more: Treatment for Low Sperm Count

Azoospermia Treatment

Fortunately, azoospermia is a curable disease. There are various remedies for this disorder such as changing lifestyle, doing exercise constantly, and having ginseng root; however, in most cases, specifically in patients with non-obstructive azoospermia, hormonal therapy and surgical procedures are required. The most important factor in azoospermia treatment is that it should be diagnosed and treated as soon as possible. 

There are several surgical treatments for obstructive azoospermia including vasovasostomy (VV) and vasoepididymostomy (VE), transurethral resection of the prostate (in cases where the ejaculate ducts are blocked), and epididymis ligation. If the patient with obstructive azoospermia decides to have a biological child, the doctor extracts sperm from the testicles with a needle and transfers it to the female’s uterus through the microinjection method.

azoospermia treatment methods


Testicular Biopsy
Read more: Testicular Biopsy; A Way to Retrieve Sperm from Testicles


How to Prepare for Azoospermia Treatment?

To maximize the effects of azoospermia treatment, it’s recommended to consider the following tips:

  • Avoid drinking alcohol because it can reduce sperm count and motility;
  • Stop smoking; smoking can decrease the number and motility of the sperms and increase DNA abnormalities;
  • Do not wear tight underwear and pants for a long period since they keep the testicles close to the body and the body’s temperature decreases sperm concentration; and
  • Do not take a hot shower before the treatment. Using hot tubs, Jacuzzis, and saunas for a long time can heat the testis and affect sperm production. 


Azoospermia Treatment: Aftercare 

In general, you will not face any serious problems after azoospermia treatment; however, if you had any of the following symptoms, contact your doctor.

  • Fever;
  • Severe pain in testicles;
  • Extreme fatigue; and
  • Abnormal discharge from your penis.

Moreover, it is necessary to have a notorious diet and take necessary supplements after azoospermia treatment. Also, doing exercise and yoga regularly can increase sperm production.

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