Varicocele Surgery Benefits: Is a Varicocelectomy Worth it?Fertility Treatment
Varicocele is one of the most common testicular disorders in men. It is associated with abnormal enlargement and twisting of the veins above the testicle. This condition may not usually cause male infertility. However, in some cases, it causes an increased testicular temperature that reduces the quantity and quality of sperm and will lead to male infertility.
Varicocele treatment can increase the function of cells that produce testosterone (male hormone) and reduce varicocele complications and the possibility of its recurrence; so, it is very necessary to treat varicocele with surgery or other treatment methods.
Read on to learn about different treatment procedures for varicocele and varicocelectomy instructions.
What Is a Varicocele?
Varicocele is a complication that occurs due to the malfunction of the valves of the testicular veins. The function of these valves is to control the testicular blood flow to the body. Therefore, when these values are damaged, the blood that reaches the testicles from the arteries is not back up well and will cause the production of bad-quality sperm.
The testis generally has 3 venous networks, including internal spermatic arteries, external spermatic arteries, and vas deferens arteries. Varicocele different grades occur in the internal spermatic arteries, with grade 3 varicocele being the most severe one.
According to studies, varicoceles are more common in the left testicle. The reason is that the path of the left spermatic vein that drains blood from the left scrotum into the renal vein is longer and has a more vertical angle.
How to Prepare for Varicocele Surgery?
The following measures should be taken before the varicocele surgery:
- Consult with the doctor before the surgery about the use of medications such as antihypertensive or diabetes drugs;
- Take a bath on the day before surgery and shave the surgical area above the testicles and groin;
- Have a light dinner the night before surgery and fast for 6 to 8 hours before the surgery.
On the day of surgery, the patient should wear a special hospital gown and lie down on a surgical table to receive general anesthesia if needed. The doctor then inserts a catheter to remove urine during surgery.
How Is Varicocele Surgery Performed?
Varicocele treatment plays an important role in improving male fertility. The treatment procedures depend on the type and grade of varicocele, including:
- Varicocele Embolization
- Subinguinal Varicocelectomy
- Microsurgical Varicocelectomy
- Laparoscopic Varicocelectomy
- Varicocelectomy Open Surgery
- Retroperitoneal Varicocelectomy
Varicocele Embolization (varicocele treatment without surgery)
Varicocele embolization is the least invasive treatment procedure. This non-surgical procedure uses an X-ray to help the doctor move the catheter into the enlarged vein. The doctor then injects a blocking agent or places a small coil in the affected vein to divert the blood flow. In the embolization method, the lymph flow is not disturbed. Therefore, there will be no risk of hydrocele and testicular artery ligation.
Subinguinal varicocelectomy is done by inserting a tube into the groin. The other surgical tools are also inserted into the body through the same incision. In subinguinal varicocelectomy, the surgeon blocks or burns the affected veins with special chemicals.
In the microsurgical varicocelectomy method, the urologist separates the affected veins from other arteries using microscopic magnification. The microsurgical method takes more time than other procedures. However, it has fewer complications and recurrence rates (less than 1%).
Laparoscopic Varicocelectomy (lap varicocelectomy)
In the laparoscopic method, the surgeon utilizes a laparoscope with light to observe the inside of the body. The surgery begins with several small incisions on the abdominal area to identify and block the veins that caused varicocele.
Varicocelectomy Open Surgery
In the varicocelectomy open surgery, the surgeon makes an incision in the groin area to identify and close the veins causing varicocele.
Retroperitoneal Varicocelectomy (Palomo varicocelectomy)
Palomo varicocelectomy is a safe and effective procedure in which an incision interrupts the veins higher than the abdominal incision. Recurrence and complication rates of retroperitoneal varicocelectomy are similar to open surgery.
Varicocele Surgery Recovery Time
Depending on the type of surgery, the patients can continue their routine activities between 2 days to 2 weeks after varicocele surgery.
Some aftercare measures should be performed, including:
- Rest and do little physical activities on the day after the surgery;
- Avoid strenuous exercises for 10 to 14 days after the surgery;
- Avoid sexual intercourse for four weeks after the surgery;
- Drink liquids a few hours after the surgery;
- Take a bath 2 to 3 days after surgery if no discharge is observed in the surgical area;
- Remove sutures 7 to 10 days after surgery if the sutures are non-absorbable;
- Use the medications prescribed by the doctor regularly;
- Take painkillers and antibiotics depending according to the doctor's discretion to speed up the sperm recovery process and create good-quality sperm;
- Eat low-fat food such as plain rice, toast, yogurt, and chicken;
- Consume fiber to prevent constipation;
- Take laxatives as prescribed by the doctor if there is no bowel movement until two days after the surgery;
- Consult a doctor if you see bleeding, excessive discharge, high fever, and severe swelling at the surgical site or around the testicles;
- See a doctor at three-month intervals with a sperm test in case having undergone varicocele surgery to resolve infertility.
How to Sleep After Varicocele Surgery?
During the varicocelectomy recovery time, sleeping on the back and putting a pillow under the knees is better to lessen the pressure. Patients can sleep in whatever position they want two weeks after surgery when the veins are healed.
What Are the Benefits of Varicocele Surgery?
According to research, people who perform varicocele surgery see its positive effects from various aspects.
The advantages of a varicocelectomy are as follows:
- Improving semen quality;
- Reducing oxidation of sperm DNA;
- Improving sperm quality after three months;
- Increasing testosterone production and sperm motility for pregnancy;
- Treating infertility in case of performing other infertility treatment procedures;
- Solving the problem of the slow growth of testicles in teenagers.
What Are the Complications of Varicocele Surgery?
Despite the benefits of varicocelectomy, the surgery may have some complications, as below:
- Confusion and nausea due to the use of anesthetic drugs;
- Recurrence of varicocele due to incomplete ligation of affected vessels;
- Shrinking of the testicle due to the interruption of the testicular artery and lack of blood flow to the testicle;
- Temporarily testicular pain due to the ligation of the testicular veins;
- Partial and temporary bruising and swelling for 3 to 6 weeks in the groin;
- Damage to the testicular artery (often in open surgery) and, as a result, testicular damage;
- Hydrocele or scrotal swelling due to disruption of lymph flow during surgery and lack of sufficient rest, resulting in a feeling of heaviness and pain in the scrotum.
What Is the Varicocelectomy Success Rate?
According to sources, the success rate of varicocele treatment is around 50-80%, and the success chance of natural pregnancy is about 30-50%.
What Happens if I Don't Get Varicocele Treatment?
The higher severity of varicocele is, the longer its effects. If a varicocele is not treated at the proper time, the following complications and risks may threaten the patient's health:
The most common risk of varicocele is low sperm motility. Furthermore, as the backflow of testicular blood in patients with varicocele carries free radicals and harmful substances, it increases the testicular temperature, which weakens sperm production and leads to male infertility.
The ideal temperature for sperm production is around 33-34 degrees Celsius. However, in a long-term varicocele, the testicular temperature increase and gradually causes testicular atrophy, which is irreversible.
The backflow and excess blood accumulate inside the testicle in patients with varicocele. It can cause pain and a feeling of heaviness in the testicle.
Varicocele Surgery Cost
The cost of varicocele surgery varies depending on hospital facilities, required tests, and paraclinical services such as ultrasound, medications, and doctor visits, although the hospital can estimate the expenses.
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Frequently Asked Questions about Varicocele Surgery
1) What happens if I do not operate the varicocele?
As mentioned, not treating varicocele causes serious problems that may lead to serious testicular damage and male fertility, which will no longer be able to cure.
2) How long after varicocele surgery can I get pregnant?
Sperm Improvement and pregnancy after surgery usually occur between 6 months to 1 year. However, it is necessary to perform a semen analysis every 3-4 months to check this issue.
3) When is the best time for varicocele surgery?
Varicocele surgery in teenagers is prescribed if there is pain or if one testicle is 10% smaller than the other. A semen analysis test is also performed to ensure the efficiency of varicocele surgery and solve fertility issues in the future.
4) How many days after varicocele surgery can I have sexual intercourse?
As mentioned earlier, normal sexual intercourse can usually be resumed 2 to 4 weeks after varicocele surgery.