Ruptured Ovarian Cyst Symptoms: How to Know If Ovarian Cysts Ruptured?


An ovarian cyst is a small sac filled with blood or yellowish fluid that develops in one or both ovaries. Despite being common, ovarian cysts can be a life-threatening issue in case of rupture and bleeding, so they must be treated fully and in time.

Ovarian cyst formation is a common problem among women of childbearing age. If these cysts burst open, they can cause various complications such as bleeding, inflammation, and unbearable pain in the abdomen and back. The cysts contain fluid and develop inside or on the ovaries in various sizes. Diagnosing ovarian cysts requires careful examination of the pelvis through ultrasound. 

Getting to know the symptoms of a ruptured ovarian cyst allows for faster treatment and preventing its complications. To avoid the side effects of ovarian cyst rupture, women must get routine checkups and report any symptoms of ovarian cyst formation or rupture to their gynecologists. This article discusses ovarian cyst rupture symptoms, its causes, prevention, and treatment methods. 

Ovarian Cyst

What Are Ruptured Ovarian Cyst Symptoms?

Sometimes, the ovarian cysts pop without any symptoms, but in many cases, the signs of their rupture can be clearly seen and felt. In such a situation, seeking medical help and treating it promptly is urgent. The main symptoms of a ruptured ovarian cyst are:

  • Severe abdominal pain
  • Bleeding
  • Abdominal distension 

In the following, you can get detailed information about these symptoms. 

Ruptured Ovarian Cyst Symptoms

Severe abdominal pain

Sudden, sharp, and severe pain in the abdomen is one of the main and primary signs of ovarian cyst rupture. In some rare cases, also, the patients feel numbness in their stomach and back. Interestingly, the right ovary is more prone to cyst rupture due to its different structure of blood vessels and elevated blood pressure.

So, if you have an ovarian cyst and feel sudden, intense pain on the right side of your stomach, you must contact a doctor right away. If you feel mild pain, you can take painkillers like ibuprofen and ketorolac, but if you have severe pain, you need to get a quick examination.

Bleeding

In most cases, rupture of ovarian cysts (especially functional ones) is associated with intra-abdominal bleeding, but as this usually happens during menstrual bleeding, it is not easily recognized. Since the corpus luteum (CL) cysts have innumerable blood vessels in their walls, internal bleeding after cyst rupture is highly probable. In any case, severe and excessive bleeding can be dangerous and life-threatening, so it must be diagnosed and treated straight away.

Studies have revealed that several cysts with abnormal shapes are formed when a chocolate cyst bursts up. Still, when corpus luteum cysts rupture, they cause bleeding in the peritoneal cavity (the space between the abdominal organs and the inner layer of the abdominal wall).

Abdominal distension

Due to the excessive growth of cysts on the verge of bursting, the abdomen swells and enlarges. Enlargement of the cysts puts pressure on the other internal organs. Even when the ovarian cysts rupture, and their fluid leaks, abdominal distension continues for some time. Therefore, abdominal distension and bloating are the most common symptoms and complications of ovarian cyst rupture.

Other Symptoms of Ruptured Ovarian Cyst

One of the symptoms mentioned above alone does not ensure that the ovarian cyst has popped; however, if it is accompanied by other signs and symptoms such as dizziness, fever, nausea, vomiting, etc., the patient must immediately refer to a doctor.

It’s worth mentioning that sometimes anemia resulting from ovarian cyst rupture causes symptoms such as an increase in the heart rate or a decrease in blood pressure. Also, irregular menstruations, delayed periods for more than three days, and digestive problems can be symptoms of a ruptured ovarian cyst.

Symptoms of Ruptured Ovarian Cyst

Ruptured Ovarian Cyst Diagnosis

To diagnose a ruptured ovarian cyst, first, the doctor checks the medical history of the patient and measures her symptoms. Then, they perform a pelvic examination to diagnose the ruptured ovarian cysts and take the necessary measures to drain them. 

Confirming ovarian cyst rupture is quite hard and requires differential diagnosis; in other words, the doctor needs the results of different medical tests to rule out diseases with similar symptoms, such as appendicitis, ectopic pregnancy, kidney stones, etc. In general, the most common methods of diagnosing ruptured ovarian cyst include:

  • Ultrasound to detect the location, shape, and size of ovarian cysts 
  • Urine test to find other causes of abdominal pain
  • Blood test to check for anemia and infection
  • CT scan to check the ovaries by X-ray
  • Endocervical culture test to diagnose pelvic infection


Reasons for Ovarian Cyst Rupture 

Several factors can cause the ovarian cysts to rupture, many of which can be prevented and controlled. The enlargement of the cysts increases the possibility of their rupture; therefore, you need to take preventive and therapeutic measures if you have enlarged, dangerous cysts. In the following, the main causes of ovarian cyst rupture are enumerated. 

  • Hormonal changes, especially the ones related to the menstrual cycle
  • Formation of new cysts or enlargement of the previous ones during the pregnancy 
  • Not having blood clotting factors 
  • Taking anticoagulants (medicines that help prevent blood clots)
  • Rupture or leakage of large cysts due to sexual intercourse 
  • Straining while pooping in people with severe constipation
  • Being hit in the abdomen, the areas around the ovaries, or other parts of the pelvic cavity
  • Doing sudden movements during exercise and even bending to pick up heavy objects 
  • Occurrence of ectopic pregnancy, i.e., when the embryo develops somewhere other than the uterus
  • Internal bleeding caused by spleen or liver rupture
  • Having appendicitis or inflammation of the appendix
  • Having ovarian endometriosis (development of endometrial cells around the ovary)


Ruptured Ovarian Cyst Side Effects

In cases where ovarian cyst rupture is accompanied by mild or no symptoms, the life of the patient is not in danger, and she will not face serious complications. However, if she has uncontrollable pain and severe bleeding, she should seek medical help immediately.  

If necessary, the patient should be hospitalized, and surgeries such as laparoscopy (with small abdominal incisions) or laparotomy (with large abdominal incisions) should be done to remove the cysts and prevent excessive bleeding. The patient might face the following side effects before or after the treatment. 

  • Heavy bleeding
  • Infection
  • Formation of a blood clot
  • In case of undergoing surgery, the incisions may not heal properly (rare)
  • Scarring after the surgery
  • In the case of undergoing laparoscopy, the surgeon may have to make large incisions 
  • Damage to nerves and blood vessels
  • Damage to the muscles or organs near the ovaries


Does ovarian cyst affect infertility?
Read more: How Do Ovarian Cysts Affect Your Fertility?

Ruptured Ovarian Cyst Treatment 

Choosing the right treatment for a ruptured ovarian cyst depends on the type of the cyst and the severity of the complications after its rupture. With small cysts, the doctor only prescribes painkillers and monitors the condition of cysts.

However, if the cysts are large and the patient has severe symptoms, she should get intravascular painkillers and a blood transfusion to compensate for the blood she has lost. Whether the cyst is small or large, the doctor controls the patient's vital signs, measures the level of her red blood cells, and checks her pelvis for the signs of intra-abdominal bleeding with the help of ultrasound.

Large and painful cysts can be removed either by laparoscopy or laparotomy. In these operations, which are done under anesthesia, the cysts are removed by special surgical tools and through incisions. During the ovarian cyst surgery, the doctor controls the internal bleeding and removes fluids and blood clots from the body. In some rare cases, due to the risk of developing cancerous cells, the doctor may remove the ovaries or uterus, too.

أعراض إنفجار اكياس المبيض
Read more: How to Treat Ovarian Cyst? [Medications + Natural Remedies]


Ruptured Ovarian Cyst Treatment

What to Do after Ruptured Ovarian Cyst?

Taking care of the body after removing the ruptured cysts is very important. In mild cases, the patient can rest at home and take prescribed painkillers to control her pain. In severe cases, the patient usually stays at the hospital for 24 to 48 hours to be monitored by the doctor. Then, the doctor examines her pelvic cavity and vagina periodically to make sure that the bleeding has stopped and the cancerous cells have not developed.

Make a mental note that having symptoms such as extreme dizziness or severe pain in the abdomen after removing a ruptured ovarian cyst is not usual and must be treated in a short time. So, if you have the mentioned symptoms, inform your doctor and prepare for imaging (ultrasound, CT scan, X-ray) and blood tests. 

If the ruptured ovarian cyst is removed surgically, you need to reduce your physical activities and avoid heavy sports until the wounds are completely healed. Also, you have to maintain good personal hygiene to prevent infection. 

When Should I Visit the Doctor After Ovarian Cyst Rupture?

It is highly recommended to get regular check-ups by a gynecologist to diagnose reproductive health concerns, like ovarian cysts, and treat them in time. In general, having sharp pain in the abdomen and back, feeling pressure and tightness under the stomach, and having irregular bleeding are not normal and can be the signs of a ruptured ovarian cyst.

Also, since ovarian cyst rupture is related to other health conditions such as ectopic pregnancy, appendicitis, liver and spleen bleeding, etc., it should be taken seriously and reported to the doctor in the shortest time possible.

When Should I Visit the Doctor After Ovarian Cyst Rupture?

Ovarian Cyst Treatment in Iran

In Iran, various ovarian cyst treatments are done to reduce the risk of their rupture, preserve the ovarian reserve, and increase the fertility rate in women with PCOS. Iranian fertility specialists usually start the treatment process with medications such as contraceptive pills to prevent future cysts from forming.

However, if the cysts are already formed and developed, the surgeons perform laparoscopy and laparotomy to remove the cysts and prevent the complications of their rupture. Therefore, you can always rely on the expertise of Iranian surgeons and have your ovarian cysts treated permanently.

Contact Us

Contact us for a free initial consultation about whether you have to do IVF or use an egg donation because of an ovarian cyst in Iran.

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How to Prevent Ovarian Cyst Rupture?

There is no specific method to prevent ovarian cyst rupture and its side effects. However, if you get regular check-ups and examinations, the doctor may diagnose cysts at risk of growing and bursting in time and prevent their rupture.

In such a situation, the development stage of the cysts should be continuously monitored by the doctor. If they do not shrink or disappear naturally or by medicines, they should be surgically removed before bursting.

It should be noted that getting regular examinations is important in controlling women's ovarian reserve, too, because it checks for AMH levels in the blood. If diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) is confirmed, you can start the fertility treatments right away to preserve the remaining eggs.  

How to Prevent Ovarian Cyst Rupture?

Conclusion

To sum up, having an ovarian cyst is a common problem among women during their reproductive age and often resolves on its own or with certain medicines. But in some cases, as the cysts develop and enlarge, they may pop and cause severe pain and bleeding. Current treatment methods can control the complications of a ruptured ovarian cyst and minimize its risks.

However, it is suggested to get regular check-ups and be aware of the primary symptoms of ovarian cyst rupture, such as sudden pain in the abdomen, bleeding, bloating, and prolonged dizziness. 

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